Sunday, March 9, 2014

A Short History of Romania

Stone Age The first traces of human habitation in the future Romania
8000 BC The country is home to settled communities who make treir living from farming and hunting

3000 BC The Thracians, a group of Indo-European tribes, travel from Asia and ocuppy the future Romania
2000 BC A Thracian sub-group emerges and becomes known to the Romans as the Dacians, while the Greeks refer them as the Getae
700 BC The Greeks begin to estabilish trading colonies, particularly along the Black Sea coast. Western-style civilization begins to develop
82-44 BC Burebista rules Dacia, ancient Romania
AD 100 Dacia civilization reaches its zenith
101-102 The Romans invade Dacia
256- Romans pull out of Dacia as a result of Barbarian invasions
4th century The Daco-Roman Latin-speaking people adopt Christianity
1000 Three distinct principalities Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania, emerge, the latter begin under Hungarian and German control
12th century Saxon settlers from Germany start to estabilish towns in Transylvania, at the behest of the King of Hungary
1448,1456-62,1476 The three reigns of Vlad Țepeș (Vlad the Impaler), the Wallachian ruler who would subsequently inspire the Dracula myth.
1457-1504 Reign of Moldavian Prince Ștefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great). He builds monasteries to commemorate his many victories on the battlefield.
1600 The three principalities are united for the first time, for six mounths,by Mihai Viteazul (Michael the Brave.)
17th century Having triumphed over the Ottomans, the Austrian Habsburgs try yo increase their own empire, and seize Transylvania
1718 The Habsburgs occupy Oltenia, in Wallachia, for almost 20 years.
1775 Habsburgs gain control of Bucovina.
1812 Basarabia, in Moldavia, is seisez by the Russians
1848 The country is engulfed in the wave of European revolutions stirring liberal, nationalist and socialist movements. In Romania, a burgeoning bourgeoisie calls for a united country. Transylvania comes under the direct rule of Hungary.
1859 Moldavia and Wallachia unite, led by Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza.
1866 Cuza abdicates, and is succeeded by a German of the Hohenzollern-Sigmringen house, Prince Carol I.
1877-8 Romania fights with Russia against the Turks
1878 The Treaty of Berlin recognizes the complete independence of the principalities of Romania
1881 The country becomes a kingdom, with Carol I on the throne.
1914 King Carol I dies, and is succeeded by his nephew King Ferdinand I.
1916 Romania enters World War I, fighten on the side of the Allies.
1918 Romania is forced to negotiate peace with Germany, before subsequently rejoining the war. The close of hostilities sees Romania awarded territory that doubles its size and population.
Interwar period România Mare, a period of cultural, political and architectural advancement fot the country. However, tension surrounding the ethic minorities its increasing, and with it comes the growth of Fascism.
1930 Carol II succeeds his father, Ferdinand, as king.
1938 Under pressure from the rise of Fascism, King Carol II abolishes parliament and declares a dictorship.
1940 Romania cedes territories to both Hungary and the USSR. Military General Ion Antonescu forces the king to step down in favour of his son, Prince Mihai. Antonescu, however, assumes power himself.
1941 Aiming to retrive the area lost to the URSS, Romania joins World War II on the side of Germans.
1944 Having won the backing of pro-Allied politicians including the Communists, King Mihai has Antonescu arrested. Romania switches sides to join the Allies.
1945 At the end of teh war, the leaders of the victorious nations, Franklin D Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin, meet at the Yalta Conference. Their division of post-war Europe hands Romania to the Russians.
1947 Romania gets Transylvania back from Hungary. After a gradual seizing of power, the Communists force King Mihai to abdicate. They proclaim a Communist People’s Republic.
1953 Joseph Stalin dies. Romania starts to distance itself from Moscow.
1965 The prime minister and the Communist Party leader Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej dies, to be succeeded by Nicolae Ceaușescu
1966 The spelling of the country’s name officially changed from Rumania to Romania.
1971 Following a tour of China, North Korea and Vietnam, Ceaușescu adopts a more stringent brand of Communism. He instils a personality cult and starts to have a large areas demolished in a process of systematisation.
1977 Bucharest is rocked by an earthquacke which kills around 1,500 people.
1980 Ceaușescu’s determination to pay off the national debt and enthusiasm for vanity projects sees a huge amount of Romania goods exported, leaving the country in severe deprivation.
1989 The Romanian Revolution sees a week of rebellion and riots that culminate in the show trial and execution of Nicolae Ceaușescu and Elena Ceaușescu.
1990 Former Communist official Ion Iliescu seisez power. He summons the country’s miners to violently suppress academics who protest again ex-Communists returning to office.
1991 Low salaries and the high cost of living prompt miner’s riots. The government collapses.
1996 Centre-right Romanian Democratic Convention (CDR) beats the ex-Communists (PSD) in the general election.
1997 The CDR initiates major reforms and opens Securitate (Communist Secret Police) files.
1999 The European Union invites Romania to begin negotiations on the country’s accession.
2000 Iliescu is re-elected, beating the other presidential finalist, far-right candidate Corneliu Vadim Tudor.
2002 Romania receives official invitation to join NATO.
2004 Romania joins NATO. PSD loses general election to Justice and Truth Alliance. Iliescu is replaced as president by Traian Băsescu, mayor of Bucharest.
2007 After a postponement due to political upheaval at home, Romania holds its first ever elections for the European Parliament.
2009 As Romania struggles to deal with the deleterious effects of the global financial crisis, Băsescu narrowly beats PSD candidate Mircea Geoană in the presidential election to secure a second term.

2014 Romania’s prospective adoption of the Euro.

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